Since what qualifies majority if not all of our prospective Corps Members to CM, and our ex Corp members still need this in their Post graduate studies, we decided to create this section to interact and be of help to ourselves.
UNDERSTANDING THE PRECEPT OF PROJECT WRITING AND DISSERTATION AND THESIS FOR FINAL YEAR STUDENTS, MASTER STUDENTS AND DOCTORAL STUDENTS RESPECTIVELY
27TH JULY, 2019
FROM THE DESK OF BUTY GLOBAL
Project writing is an independent task that is required of every undergraduate student and or postgraduate diploma student in tertiary institutions, Dissertation is an independent task that is required of every master student at the postgraduate level, and Thesis is an independent task that is required of every doctoral (PhD) student at the postgraduate level. Despite the fact that the students are expected to carry out the task independently, they are always guided or supervised by academic staff. Apart from the student’s supervisor, there is also an external supervisor is usual who will provide an external and autonomous check on the task. The difference between a project, dissertation, and thesis can be traceable to the difference between a statement of problem and statement of the problem, which will be further explained as we progress with the article. When structuring the given task, there are three stages:
The proposal stage: In this stage, the following should be noted: Introduction (Background to the study, Problem statement, Aim and Objectives, Hypothes(i/e)s, Significance, Scope, Limitation, Definition of operational terms, methodology, and references.
The progress stage: In this stage, the following should be noted:
i. Chapter one: Introduction (Background to the study, Problem statement, Aim and Objectives, Hypothes(i/e)s, Significance, Scope, Limitation, Study area, and Definition of operational terms.
ii. Chapter two: Literature review (Introduction, Theoretical framework, Conceptual framework, and Empirical review).
iii. Chapter three: Methodology (Research design, Population, Sampling technique, Sampling frame and size, Method of data collection, Instrument of data collection, Justification of sampling with data collection and data types, and Method of data analysis.
The final stage: In this stage, the following should be noted:
i. Chapter one: Introduction (Background to the study, Problem statement, Aim and Objectives, Hypothes(i/e)s, Significance, Scope, Limitation, Study area, and Definition of operational terms.
ii. Chapter two: Literature review (Introduction, Theoretical framework, Conceptual framework, and Empirical review).
iii. Chapter three: Methodology (Research design, Population, Sampling technique, Sampling frame and size, Method of data collection, Instrument of data collection, Justification of sampling with data collection and data types, and Method of data analysis. iv. Chapter four: Data analysis and discussion of findings (In line with the objectives).
v. Chapter five: Summary of findings, Conclusion, and Policy implications or Recommendations.
We will elaborate more on each chapter in the next volume of the article.
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Some researchers take responsibility of independent reviewer for many academic journals. Also, at the postgraduate level of some institutions, some Lecturers are saddled with the responsibilities of taking records of postgraduate researches before presentations, while copies of postgraduate researches are usually distributed to other Lecturers to read and make remarks before making a presentation. The following should be considered by a reviewer whenever an Editor-in-Chief of a journal sent a manuscript to be reviewed, or be considered by Lecturers that are to make remarks on the postgraduate dissertation or thesis: a)Making suggestions of alternative reviewers to the Editor in case they cannot review the manuscript for whatsoever reasons; b)The reviewer must not pass on the assigned manuscript to another reviewer; c)The identity of the reviewer should be anonymous to the authors; d)The manuscript to be reviewed must be treated as a confidential document; e)A reviewer must not convert the manuscript to their work or making use of the manuscript in whatsoever form; f)Manuscripts are meant to be reviewed critically and constructively, not destructively; g)A reviewer should prepare comprehensive comments about the manuscript for improving the work when sent back to the author; h)The reviewer should provide all necessary information on the manuscript reviewed within the set timeframe; i)Providing recommendations to the editor regarding the adequacy and suitability of the manuscript for publication; j)Revealing to the Editor any potential conflicts of interest from authors or the content of the manuscript; k)Identifying any traces of research misdemeanors; l)The reviewer must not communicate directly with authors; among others. In conclusion, a reviewer is supposed to find out the following essentials that should be present in a manuscript: Originality; Novelty; Scientific underpinnings; Contribution to the literature, knowledge, and practice; Ethical characteristics; Article structure in-line with guidelines; Adequacy of referencing the citations; Grammatical structure (spellings, punctuations); and Devoid of plagiarism and other academic frauds.
Note: In whatsoever form, this article must not be reproduced by any author without proper consulting the writer on
Nine mistakes that Researchers often commit when writing Journal articles
Publishing scientific works is an important part of many disciplinary programs, and hence we have to choose an international journal where we can send our work for review. Sometimes, we may have re-send the research work multiple times due to rejections. But it is necessary to ask oneself why the scientific work, even after weeks of turmoil, blood and sweat and effort gets rejected. Perhaps the author is making mistakes that are unacceptable in good scientific work. So how can we identify these common mistakes and rectify them?
Below is a list of common errors authors usually make in scientific research-
Vague or Unspecified Research- Every research paper need to have a clear and specific research question which the findings and results will finally attempt to answer. The research question can be one or many, but it cannot be confusing. It cannot be too broad that it remains unidentified. Let’s look at an example- “The paper studies children of the slum area, how they leave in poverty, and how they suffer in undernourishment. The research tries the answer if there is a good education system. The politics that play a major role in the dwelling of slums, how does that affect the living of slum children etc.” This is a vague research question, because it cannot be understood whether the question is “do slum children suffer from malnutrition?” or “do slum children have proper means of education?” or is it “what are the ways poverty affects slum children?” or if it is “how politics impact the life of slum children?”.
A research question should clearly address the problem at hand and focus on what the paper is attempting to find. Below is an example of a good research question- “What factors affect people's belief in a higher power?”
Less Focus on Objective- A research paper which doesn’t clarify its objective, in the beginning, is not a good research paper. You have to define the problem focusing on all important aspects and explain why is it important to solve that problem. That is called the objective of your study. You have to formulate a very strong objective in order to justify the necessity of your research.
Structure of Paper is Chaotic- It is a common an unintentional mistake to include your Methods in the Result section. Literature review in the discussion section. Before you begin writing, you need to organize what each section of your paper must contain, for e.g. Introduction should define the research question after giving a background to the topic. Methods discuss the way in which the research question has been answered i.e. the tools and techniques used in the study. Results show the findings that have achieved from the tests and Discussion/Interpretation says what these results may mean in the context of the topic.
Introducing a Completely New Idea in the Summary- A summary or conclusion is meant to summarize what you do throughout the research. You are not supposed to talk about a completely alien viewpoint which you haven’t assessed anywhere
Getting the research published in peer-reviewed scientific journals is the best of academic assessment, and communication of research findings is possible with the publication. It is important to publish the articles in journals which are indexed by reputed databases.
Selection of high quality journal becomes a difficult decision for the authors as there is no clarity on the issue. Database research is the first activity researchers undertake as part of their study, and they naturally look to established, well-known databases.
Why is indexing essential?
Indexation of a journal is considered a reflection of its quality. Indexed journals are considered to be of higher scientific quality as compared to non-indexed journals. Indexing helps a journal achieve its main purpose of being accessible to a wide audience. Being accessible in turn improves journal’s reputation as a reliable source of high-quality information in any field. Being indexed in a known database in any field increases a journal’s readership. Thus, it is important to publish the articles in journals which are indexed by reputed databases
Skills are a set of abilities that are acquired through experience and exposure. Skills allow you to perform a certain designated task based on the areas of your skills- work skills help you stand out amidst your colleagues at your place of work. For instance, an architect will need to have creative thinking and problem-solving skills since this will help him design construction projects, read blueprints, make presentations and also analyze spatial data.
Furthermore, to make a huge success in the present global economy, you need to understand what skills are and also be able to communicate your skills. The communication is not meant to be its literal meaning, as mentioned earlier, you communicate your skills when you take up actions that show your level of expertise. It is important to note that your everyday success requires continuous improvement, upgrading your life cum learning new skills and strengthening the skills you already possess. Start directing and leading your life through the right path with the best skillset- reading this article is the first step. Essential Life Skills Life skills refer to your behaviours and abilities that aid your survival during the challenge and hard curves. Life skills cover the skills that help you handle all life issues; ranging from processing your emotions, identifying your problems and also interacting with others. That being said, life skills can also be said to be any skill that is useful and important in your life. These vary by a person’s culture and way of life. Sometimes life skills can be measured by a person’s age; it is expected of an adult to have more and stronger life skills than a growing person. Life skills are one essential thing that every employer looks out for when hiring new hands to their organization. One can easily predict the growth and end of companies and organizations that hire people who have little or irrelevant skills; these people bring nothing to the table. Interestingly, everyone has more than two skills; the major task is discovering and building them. Those who discover and strengthen their skills are seen as being matured in the environment; they are perceived to be professionals in what they do, upon the fact that they possess all that is required. Build and develop the best life skills today; they are crucial to management and leadership positions. Why Certain Skills are Necessary for Every Field of Life Building all-important skills is a very essential exercise that should be handled with levity. Aside from building a good reputation between yourself and the community, skills also play a very crucial role in developing personal wellness and desired success, it helps build up good habits and aids their long term stability. It is noteworthy that skills are of different kinds and they also fit into diverse spheres of life. However, some skills fit in and are very integral for all fields of life- these are mostly referred to as life skills. These life skills do a lot more beyond what perfecting what you do at home or work; they extend to the unseen parts of your life- like the psychological and emotional aspects of life. Some of these skills include communication skills, creative and critical thinking, resilience and a lot more.
The skills are essential since they: 1) Teaches empathy; 2) Exposes you to differing and diversity; 3) Improves your level of concentration; 4) Helps in problem-solving; 5) Bring about a good relationship between you and other people Skills that will serve you for a lifetime Creating a list of beneficial and lifelong skills is very endless due to the diversity and broadness of skillset. However, these skills still need to be looked into since they help transform and develop every individual’s future for the best as they arise from the best things that lie within us. Lifelong skills are more like a lot of the skills we hear of daily. Learning and building on these skills have to do with how we connect with people around us and with the world at large. A lot of times, it also relates to starting and building relationships that last long. Noting that the mastering of lifelong skills helps us live better and happier, we will be discussing ten (and very important) skills that serve long term purposes and are beneficial to everyone – parents, students, educators, employers, and the likes. Creative Thinking Creativity is a very important skill for all professionals. Creative thinking is very relevant to both work and personal life as it offers a lot to anyone in possession of it. People who think creatively are always able to view think from an unusual but plausible perspective. Thinkers are those behind the revolution and development of civilization and the human race entirely since they have introduced solutions to a lot of problems with their thoughts. Creative thinking extends to the ability to think, invent and create something new out of what already exists. The invention mentioned in the previous lines does not have to be scientific inventions, it could be a new method of doing things, a concept, a work of art, a solution to a problem and more countless options. Since creativity is what drives progress and innovation, then creativity further entails looking at things from a point of view it has never been considered before- this could be attributed to why it is often referred to as thinking outside the box. Some typical examples of creative thinking include: • Problem Solving; • Creative Writing; • Open-Mindedness; • Analysis; • Active Listening • Sales and Marketing • Graphic Design Communication and Interpersonal Skill You might think these two stills imply the same thing; the truth is they are different in some ways. Although different, one cannot use one perfectly without developing the other; the difference between communication and interpersonal skills is further explained below. Interpersonal skills have to do with the ability of a person to communicate and perfectly relate with his team- while also understanding each person and the capabilities. Embedded in interpersonal skills is the ability to get along and tolerate the ills, weakness, and strength of everyone while still maintaining a professional level of empathy towards the situation of every team member. Know that every person you work with has his/her own needs and feeling, this can only be well discerned and attended to with a comprehensive interpersonal skill. On the other hand, communication skills cover your ability to take in an idea or set of instructions and pass them across to your audience in a way that delivers the message appropriately. Communication skills help you give clear and comprehensive instructions, communicate ideas to your team and also keep necessary bodies informed of the status of every project you are handling. Good communication skills have been said to be responsible for high self-esteem and confidence. That being said, it is important to understand that both skills are intertwined and one cannot be replaced for the other. Also, none works perfectly without the other. If you have a good personality but cannot properly pass information across to your teammates, you have failed in one way. Likely, if you can give clear instructions and share comprehensive ideas but your teammates find you proud, rude or cruel; no one will follow your instructions or even find them helpful. The latter is to say that you need to build both skills simultaneously, they are inseparable. Listening Skill Listening is a communication skill that refers to the ability to adequately receive and subsequently interpret messages through the communication process; the act of listening is very crucial and integral to effective communication. Listening has a very important role to play in organizations and firms which is why employers periodically provide listening skills training for their employees- this is to help them build more on their listening skills. Good listening skills also lead to better customer satisfaction, increment in the sharing of information and well greater productivity with fewer mistakes- which subsequently leads to more innovative and creative works. One important thing to note is that listening is very different from hearing. Hearing is a physical action that has to do with the sounds that enter your ears. When a person has no problems with the ears, the process happens automatically. Listening, on the other hand, requires a highly concentrated effort and focus with diverse body parts- the process is usually mental and sometimes physical. Resilience The act of resilience entails the ability to move with hardship, adversities, stress and even trauma strikes. Resilience is what allows a person to keep functioning (psychologically and physically) in times of grief, anger, pain and terrible situation. Although, resilience is not about going about it alone or being stoic; de facto, being able to reach out to other people for support and help is a core component of resiliency. Resilience further has to do with adapting to life’s setbacks and misfortune. How do you test your level of resilience? Ask yourself; when something goes wrong or things are not working out well, what do you do? Do you fall apart or bounce back and keep moving? Remember, ‘when the going gets tough, the tough get going’, the ‘tough’ referred to there are the resilient ones. When you are resilient, you align this with your strength which allows you to rebound from a challenge, job loss, setback, disaster, illness or death of a loved one. Contrarily, when you lack resilience, you dwell on these problems, become overwhelmed, and feel victimized and sorry for yourself. This might even lead you to some unhealthy coping mechanisms like drug use and abuse. While resilience will not make your problems go away, resilience gives you the ability to look past them, explore life, find enjoyment and handle stress perfectly. Resilience also becomes very handy when facing some problems and tough times at work, and you still have to keep working. How do you do this? It is in situations like this that your resilience skills become more useful. Leadership Skill What leaders do is highly selfless and often self-sacrificing. Leaders help others and themselves to achieve and do the right things, build an inspiring vision, set directions and also create something new out of what is already existing. This seems draining and requires lots of sacrifices. Leadership is very exciting, dynamic and inspiring especially when with the right people. While explaining and defining leadership might be some stress as it means diverse things to different people- everyone has their understanding of leadership- one cannot dispute some aspects of leadership as explained below: • It creates an inspiring vision of the future; • Motivates and inspires people to engage with the created vision; • Manages the delivery of the vision; • Coaches and builds a team, this is to make it more effective at achieving the vision. Leadership brings the skills required to bring people together and meet up with their individual needs. Time Management Skill When you plan and organize how you want to divide your time between certain activities and placing them in order of their relevance, you exhibit your time management skills. Great time management skills allow you to work smarter and get more done in less time- even when the time is very tight and you are working under high pressure. When you fail to manage your time, you get to work harder and cause yourself stress thereby damaging your effectiveness. It is sometimes said that there is not enough time in a day, but why do some people get more done within the same 24 hours will others have nothing to show for it? The simple answer lies in good time management skills! To get better with managing your time, you need to first make an integral shift in focus from activities to getting results. You should understand that being busy is not the same as being effective; you get productive when you are effective, you only work harder when you are busy. Start by doing what is important not what should be done. It might be sounding less productive that you are taking out some time to learn about time management instead of getting on your work. However, with great time management skills, you get to benefit the following:
• Greater productivity and efficiency; • A better professional reputation; • Less stress; • Increased opportunities for advancement; • Greater opportunities to achieve important life and career goals. When you fail to manage your time effectively, you can also get some undesirable results as outlined below: • Missed deadlines; • Inefficient workflow; • Poor work quality; • Poor professional reputation; • Stalled career; • Higher stress levels. Assertiveness An assertive person is one who can stand up for personal rights, expressing feelings, thoughts, and beliefs appropriately and honestly. When you are assertive, you get to represent your views as well as the views of other people without the breach of human rights. Assertive people know how to fight for their rights positively and calmly without being passively accepting wrong or being aggressive. Assertiveness also entails being able to express your wants, feelings, desires and wishes appropriately. This is an integral interpersonal and persona skill in all your interactions with other people at home and work- understanding that people will always have different views from yours, your response to this difference makes you assertive. While a lot of people act aggressively and passively from time to time, this way of responding and reacting to situations often shows a lack of self-confidence and how insecure you are. Assertive individuals have learned the most appropriate ways of interacting with others, hence; they make their point without getting themselves or others upset. Assertive people are usually admired for their skilful communication skills. Their behaviour includes: • Open-mindedness in expressing their feelings, wishes, and thoughts as well as encouraging others to do the same; • Listening to other people’s views and giving appropriate responses- whether they agree with those views or not; • Taking responsibility for their individual life and urging others to do the same; • Periodic expression of appreciation to others for what they have done or what they are doing; • Ability to take to their mistakes, apologize and make corrections; • Maintaining self-control; and • Placing themselves on an equal scale as with others. Employability Skill Employability skills refer to the behaviour and set of skills that are integral and required for any kind of job you are seeking. This kind of skill has many names used in referring to it; some of them are work-readiness skills, soft skills, job-readiness skills or foundational skills. Whichever way it is referred, it is all to convey the skills that an employer will look for when you submit your curriculum vitae. Some of these skills include: • Foundational Skills; • Interpersonal Skills; • Communication Skills; • Problem Solving and Critical Thinking; • Teamwork; • Ethics and Legal Responsibilities; • Professional Skills; • Career Development; • Leadership skills Furthermore, employability skills allow you to do the following perfectly: • communicate with coworkers; • solve problems; • understand your role within the team; • make responsible choices; • take charge of your career; • Influence how you interact with others; • Positively affects your job performance and career success; Anger and Stress Management Anger is a very perfect and normal human emotion that is supposed to be exhibited once in a while. However, constant anger is what becomes wrong and requiring its management. Anger management can be viewed from two different but related points of view. Firstly, anger management can be said to be a term used in describing the skills you need to recognize your state of anger or to realize that someone else is angry- or becoming angry- and how to appropriately handle the situation in a very positive way. This does not in any way mean you are trying to suppress or internalize anger; it is best explained as recognizing the signs and triggers of anger and seeking the alternatives and more appropriate ways of expressing feeling. The other side of anger management is about learning to control your anger by understanding and knowing what made you angry. You can best access this by first learning to manage your emotions; since stress can easily lead to an outburst of anger. When you fail to control and manage your anger and stress, you affect your relationship with others and also put yourself in a bad state of health. You can start controlling your outbursts with the guidelines in subsequent lines. • Start to understand your anger; • Know your triggers and signs; • Learn ways to cool down your temper; • Find other ways to express your anger; • Look after yourself; • Sleep well Confidence Confidence is not a trait that can be learned by a set of rules or by coaching; it is a state of mind to be achieved. Confidence can be improved and boost by training, positive thinking, knowledge and talking to others as well as constant practice and killing fears of all kinds. Confidence is a kind of belief in your abilities and self attributes, this usually comes from acceptance of your mind and body cum feeling of well-being. Undoubtedly, confidence is a highly cherished attribute that a lot of people wish to have; however, only a few people have it in their possession. The secret about confidence is that it has a lot to do with our upbringing and training from infancy, this can only be changed if we learn how to think about ourselves from others. A lot of lessons we have learned have damaged and built our confidence; you can as well furnish and improve your confidence with the following: • Planning and preparation; • Learning, knowledge, and training; • Positive thought; • Accept compliments and compliment yourself; • Be with people of like minds: Confidence is contagious; • Be assertive; • Keep calm; • Avoid arrogance To live your life to the fullest and utilize your potentials to the maximum, you need to develop and build on relevant and important life skills. You only get to live to the best when you discover your strengths and weaknesses- which are your skills- and add more value to your life.
The Keys to Producing Meaningful Research and Writing for International Journals
From the Desk of BUTY GLOBAL
Several pieces of research are turned out and being published in various national and international journals on a daily basis. Working on research and then producing it on paper takes a great amount of time and effort. For a scientist, it’s their dream. But with an increasing volume of works coming out over the last few decades, every work doesn’t get the attention that it deserves. Hence it is important when you write for an international journal, you need to be creative. If your academic work isn’t creative enough, it won’t be noticeable to the traditional publications. Again, creativity is the key to drawing grants for further research. In the vast ocean of talented science works, creativity is the only thing that will make your academic work stand out from others. However, making academic work interesting can be quite a challenging thing. Writing research is based on facts and findings; generally, people view that as dull and boring. To make it appealing, you can be creative in the following ways: 1) Choose your subject wisely Choose an out of the world concept which has never been thought of before. You can achieve this by engaging in conversations. Talk to people from diversified fields and origins. A topic from your field of work, itself can be something unique. Engaging in conversations can bring up new ideas in your field or genre of research; you can identify new scope from where you are working. 2) Look hard for errors in the past Be alert for anomalies and paradoxes, things that are accepted but perhaps should not be. Scientific progress often involves an ability to notice small (often minutely) anomalous events or outcomes. A new idea at first can be problematic as it will break the rules established earlier by experts. But the willingness to probe into related works and critique them logically and scientifically can bring up something creative for your new research work. The idea is to closely study your literature review and find out minor changes that can make your work different from others in the field. 3) Break-free from set rules It is important to let go of the inhibitions you are confined to. We are structured to live and think under a set pattern of rules. But to be creative we have to look beyond what is obvious and think critically outside the normal hemisphere. To create research which will be appealing to readers, think like a child who views the sky as pink. Get away from the desk. Release yourself from the pressure of guidelines and template of the international journal. Give your brain the incubation period to think afresh on subjects over a cup of coffee, before you proceed with the findings. 4) Read more and more journals Consult several international journals, both in and outside your area of work to discover new things. Diversified understanding can often give you the right clue which you can adopt in your research. 5) Look beyond the written words The complete meaning and implication of an idea can never be conveyed through a 6000 words article. When you are reading journals and literature reviews for your inspiration, try to understand the inner meaning beyond the written words; the intention or perhaps a hidden message from the study which you can utilize. Perhaps, the same work could become creative if it was presented differently, like sung or painted or danced to! Who knows! 6) Get inspiration from storytelling All writings are essentially creative, but with the tightened deadlines, format and pressure of sticking to facts and findings, we often forget the essence of communicating our research to the audience. We have to understand that all readers aren’t essentially scientists. Use metaphors and similes from daily life things to define and compare scientific ideas. 7) Broaden your circle Associate yourself with creative people who have successfully implemented their ideas. Talk to them, the group with them to know their notions and perspectives. Be stress-free Stress is the most important factor for inhibiting us from thinking. Be happy. Eat what you enjoy; be surrounded by bright colours, good music and nice fragrance which will boost your brain to think outside the box.
In conclusion, writing for international journals isn’t easy especially if your objective is to cater to a wider audience and maximize the reach of your academic research. The power of creativity can take your work from ordinary to exceptional heights which will make you noticeable as a scientist and a writer. Your work will speak for you and it will be simpler to get funding for the time and effort you put in. So do not hesitate to be creative.
Adapted from International Journal Corner (IJC)
Consult BUTY GLOBAL on Website: www.butyglobal.com Gmail: firstname.lastname@example.org Phone: +2347036196773
Moto: Contributing Significantly to Knowledge and Sustainable Living
Academic writing is not usually limited to the ideas of one author; it employs the ideas of other sources. Among are journaled articles, websites, and so on. These other sources may be used to support the author's ideas, or the author may be discussing, analysing, or critiquing other sources (Massey University). Constructive critiquing is among the beauty of academic writing, hence the need for referencing and citation. The constructs of referencing and citations cannot be farfetched from each other when defined; however, there is a need to clarify its definitions for the sake of purpose.
2.1 The Pertinence of Referencing
In the 4th Volume released, references were defined as the list of all the relevant journals, books and all sources of information consulted in the research work, either online or print. It prevents academic fraud or academic theft which is referred to as plagiarism. Plagiarism should be avoided at all costs, all quoted and exact words of different sources should be properly referenced, in-text and at the references’ list/bibliography. MLA, APA and Chicago styles are the commonest referencing styles. Referencing is usually employed to inform the reader where ideas from other sources were initially used. The pertinence of correct reference sources is to: i. Give the right credits to the originators of ideas, theories, and research findings;
ii. Prove to the reader about proper finding and usage of various sources to create a convincing argument; iii. Presents the argument that validates reality.
In a situation whereby proper acknowledgement is not given to sources, it is referred to as plagiarism. The only exception to acknowledging sources of information is when the information is known to be a common knowledge that is known to anyone. Also, when a researcher is unsure whether to reference a source or not, it is better to reference it. There are two elements used in reference, they are:
Citation in the text (in-text citations); and
An entry in a reference list at the end of the study
The citation contains enough information for the reader to find the source in the reference list. This is usually the name of the source’s author and the year the source was published. For example: When some developed countries were implementing anticorruption strategies, it was recorded that top political leaders set themselves as role models for civil servants, divesting themselves of commercial ties, demonstrating high work ethics, avoiding any behaviour that could be construed as an abuse of their office, and showing zero tolerance for corrupt behaviour (Adeniran, 2019). In this example, (Adeniran, 2019) tells the reader that this information has come from a source written by Adeniran, which was published in 2019. This is a signpost, pointing the reader to the reference list. References are a list of all the citations used in a study. It is alphabetized according to the names of the authors. Each entry in the reference list contains detailed information about one source which usually includes the author’s name, the year of publication, the title of the source, and other publication details.
2.2 The Pertinence of Citation
According to Turnitin (2017), a citation is a technique by which the writer informs the readers that certain material in the study emanates from another source. It also presents to the readers the necessary information to find that source again.
Acknowledging the original author of materials by citing sources is the only way to adopt other people’s work without plagiarizing. It enhances the tracing of the author’s ideas and the originator of ideas. Because of this, it will help to present if one's ideas could be more accurate or interesting than ideas gotten from other sources. Indeed, an accurate citation will help illustrate the amount of research that a researcher has carried out, and will actualize the originality of research.
3.0 REFERENCING STYLE
Each referencing styles has its peculiarities and purpose. For instance, the MLA style is suitable for writing humanities paper with a lot of quotations. It is a good choice to cite page numbers without interrupting the flow of your argument. APA or Chicago is suitable for writing a scientific paper where many studies are being cited. Ten popular ways of referencing styles are listed below:
ACM referencing style is developed by the Association of Computing Machinery is based on Chicago style and is primarily used in computer studies. Adeniran, A. O. 2019. Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries. American International Journal of Social Science Research. 4, 2 (Jun. 2019), 1-8.
ACS referencing style is developed by the American Chemical Society. It is used primarily in chemistry papers. ACS style has three variations for the in-text citation. The choice of style depends on the journal.
Adeniran, A. O. Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries. aijssr 2019, 4, 1-8.
APA style was created by the American Psychological Association and was originally used in psychology and social sciences. It is the most dominant referencing style adopted today in many other disciplines. APA citation style uses an author-date system of the parenthetical citation. The revised 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual was released in October 2019. Adeniran, A. O. (2019). Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries. American International Journal of Social Science Research, 4(2), 1-8. Retrieved from
ADENIRAN, A. O. Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries. American International Journal of Social Science Research, v. 4, n. 2, p. 1-8, 22 Jun. 2019.
Chicago style is published by The Chicago Manual of Style. There are two variations: Chicago A: In this case, the citation is sourced in a footnote or endnote; and Chicago B: In this case, a parenthetical author-date citation is adopted in the text. Adeniran, Adetayo Olaniyi. 2019. “Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries”. American International Journal of Social Science Research 4 (2), 1-8. https://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/328.
Harvard style is often used in the field of economics. There is no official style guide, which means there are a few variations. Some organizations have published their style guides for Harvard style:
British Standards Institution; Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS) Like APA style, Harvard style is based on an author-date system. Adeniran, A. O. (2019) “Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries”, American International Journal of Social Science Research, 4(2), pp. 1-8. Available at: https://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/328 (Accessed: 27 November 2019).
IEEE referencing style is developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. It is a citation style often used in technical studies, such as IT and electrical engineering. IEEE style has guidelines for specific types of sources. For source types that are not covered in IEEE, Chicago style is used. IEEE uses a numeric system. A. O. Adeniran, “Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries”, aijssr, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1-8, Jun. 2019.
MLA referencing style is currently in its 8th edition. It was developed by the Modern Language Association and is especially popular in language and literary studies. MLA uses parenthetical citations containing the author and page number. Adeniran, A. O. “Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries”. American International Journal of Social Science Research, Vol. 4, no. 2, June 2019, pp. 1-8, https://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/328.
Turabian was developed based on the Chicago style. It is specifically designed for students writing a research paper. Just like Chicago style, Turabian has two citation options:
A note system; and An author-date system Turabian note system is adopted in humanities (literature, history and the arts), while the author-date system is used in social sciences. Adeniran, Adetayo Olaniyi. “Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries”. American International Journal of Social Science Research 4, no. 2 (June 22, 2019): 1-8. Accessed November 27, 2019. https://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/328.
Vancouver style was developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and is mostly used in medical disciplines. Vancouver style works with a numeric system. In the text, the source is indicated by a number, and the full source details appear next to that number in the reference list. Adeniran AO. Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries. aijssr [Internet]. 22Jun.2019 [cited 27 Nov. 2019]; 4(2):1-8. Available from: https://www.cribfb.com/journal/index.php/aijssr/article/view/328
Adeniran, A. O. (2019). Anti-Corruption Policy Strategies for Nigeria towards National Development: Evidence from Least Corrupt Countries. American International Journal of Social Science Research, 4(2), 1-8. Turnitin (2017). What is a Citation? Retrieved from: www.plagiarism.org/article/what-is-citation Massey University (2019). What is Referencing? Retrieved from: will.massey.ac.nz/referencing/what-is-referencing.php https://www.cribfb.com/journal
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In regression analysis, you'd like your regression model to have significant variables and to produce a high R-squared value. This low P value / high R2 combination indicates that changes in the predictors are related to changes in the response variable and that your model explains a lot of the response variability.
This combination seems to go together naturally. But what if your regression model has significant variables but explains little of the variability? It has low P values and a low R-squared.
At first glance, this combination doesn’t make sense. Are the significant predictors still meaningful?
It’s difficult to understand the situation of regression using numbers alone. Research shows that graphs are essential to correctly interpret regression analysis results. Comprehension is easier when you can see what is happening!
Further, if you enter the same value for Input into both equations, you’ll calculate nearly equivalent predicted values for Output. For instance, an Input of 10 yields a predicted Output of 66.2 for one model and 64.8 for the other model. The variability of the data around the two regression lines is drastically different. R2 and S (standard error of the regression) numerically describe this variability.
A low R-squared graph shows that even noisy, high-variability data can have a significant trend. The trend indicates that the predictor variable still provides information about the response even though data points fall further from the regression line.
To assess the precision, we’ll examine the prediction interval. A prediction interval is a range that is likely to contain the response value of a single new observation given specified settings of the predictors in your model. Narrower intervals indicate more precise predictions.
The model with the high variability data produces a prediction interval that extends from about -500 to 630, over 1100 units! Meanwhile, the low variability model has a prediction interval from -30 to 160, about 200 units. Clearly, the predictions are much more precise from the high R-squared model, even though the fitted values are nearly the same!
The difference in precision should make sense after seeing the variability present in the actual data. When the data points are spread out further, the predictions must reflect that added uncertainty.
The coefficients estimate the trends while R-squared represents the scatter around the regression line. The interpretations of the significant variables are the same for both high and low R-squared models. Low R-squared values are problematic when you need precise predictions. So, what’s to be done if you have significant predictors but a low R-squared value? I can hear some of you saying, "add more variables to the model!"
In some cases, it’s possible that additional predictors can increase the true explanatory power of the model. However, in other cases, the data contain an inherently higher amount of unexplainable variability. For example, many psychology studies have R-squared values are less that 50% because people are fairly unpredictable.
The good news is that even when R-squared is low, low P values still indicate a real relationship between the significant predictors and the response variable.
Anti-corruption Strategies for Balanced Development: A Case Study of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC)
This paper synthesizes the assessment of anti-corruption strategies adopted by previous administrations in Nigeria and the effectiveness of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC). Factors militating against the effectiveness of EFCC were identified, and solutions proffered. Corruption in education was also noted. The administration of some heads of state before the establishment of EFCC was discovered to fuel corruption, while some administrations proved to have adopted Gandhian approach to fighting corruption; they recorded success but were not sustained because their efforts were found to have been frustrated by their succeeding administrations. The results of the frustrations lead to the establishment of EFCC which is an institution to tackle corruption during democracy. Finally, it was revealed that the achievement of EFCC's mandates is low. Towards anti-corruption strategies and the effectiveness of EFCC, recommendations were suggested. It is believed that if the recommendations were fully implemented, balanced development is inevitable.
Gap Analysis of Service Quality Delivery in the Murtala Muhammed International Airport (MMIA), Lagos, Nigeria
Abstract and figures This study examined the gap analysis of passengers' satisfaction and service quality in Murtala Muhammed International Airport, Lagos, Nigeria. Thirty-nine SKYTRAX indicators were the benchmark for services rendered by the airport and blended into SERVQUAL attributes to analyze passengers' satisfaction and service quality. The study revealed the five most satisfied airport services as rated by passengers were Efficiency of available public transport options, Getting to and fro airport with ease, Availability of luggage trolleys, Baggage delivery times, and Priority baggage delivery efficiency. Also, the five most dissatisfied airport services as rated by passengers were Courtesy and attitude of security staff, Television and entertainment facilities, Seating facilities throughout the terminal, Language skills for airport staff, and Business centre facility. It was revealed that passengers were satisfied with the overall level of airport service quality. It was concluded that there is a very strong relationship between passengers' satisfaction and service quality. Hence, it is crucial for airport management to deliver quality service so that passengers will be satisfied. The airport management should come up with policies that will improve the attitude and courtesy of airport personnel when relating to air passengers, also airport facilities that will improve the comfort of passengers should be adequately provided.
STRATEGY FOR AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION IN NIGERIA: EMPHASIS ON AGRICULTURALAVIATION
Abstract This paper reveals strategy for agricultural intensification with emphasis on agricultural aviation. As the population densities of Nigeria have been high for a long period, land degradation, involution, and perhaps even stagnation have set in. It was backed up by the theories of Thomas Malthus, and Bose upon agricultural intensification and population growth. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa with 188.7 million people (2017 estimate) which is known to have good soil that enhances agriculture. Furthermore, agricultural practice in Brazil was examined because they have similar characteristics with Nigeria in the area of soil fertility, and they are technologically developed most especially in agriculture with the practice of agricultural aviation. Nigeria still struggles with low agricultural productivity with old technological involvement. The beauty of this study is the suitability of sound policies that emanate towards achieving agricultural intensification. This is a major means to banish hunger and reduce poverty.
From the desk of Buty Global The identification of research gaps from literature and filling the gaps is referred to as the statement of the research problem and not the statement of the problem. There is needed to come up with a summary of how the research will have plausible result more than the existing works that have been carried out.
The difference between a statement of the research problem and the statement of the problem is that: The statement of research problem deals with the identification of research gaps and contributing innovative approach to improving the existing work. This is mostly applicable to Doctoral Thesis and Master Dissertation. The summary at the end of the statement of the research problem is the contribution to knowledge emanating from the researcher. Statement of the problem is the identification of problems. This is mostly applicable in Undergraduate Final Year Project and Postgraduate Diploma Project. In order to achieve the statement of research problem, the following are needed: The year of publication; The name of Author(s); The topic; and The methodology. Empirical review presents basically the work done by others. In order to achieve it, the following are needed: The year of publication; The name of Author(s); The topic; The methodology; and The findings.